Avian influenza is a constant threat to the Australian poultry industry. Aquatic birds are the main reservoir for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and have been implicated in a number of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks in commercial poultry flocks.
Various techniques have been used in other industries to deter and control waterfowl. Their application and effectiveness in the poultry industry to reduce the risk of AI transmission has not been properly investigated. This review looks critically at deterrents in the context of keeping waterfowl away from meat chicken farms.
The review draws on the recent literature, various industry reports, and information from experts and manufacturers of products, and is for the benefit of the decision makers in determining whether waterfowl control measures will be cost-effective in reducing the risk of LPAI and HPAI outbreaks, at least on some farms. The reported findings will also benefit producers looking for guidance on the best waterfowl management techniques.